One of the most significant advancements in science and technology in recent years has been the advancement of in vitro fertilisation to treat infertility. To acquire the best sperm output, a microfluidic technique is implemented for sperm measurement, sperm quality monitoring, and sperm sorting without harming the sperm or causing DNA breakage. The sperm are subsequently used in IUI, IVF, or ICSI procedures. Microfluidics in IVF is particularly effective in circumstances where the semen sample has insufficient semen parameters, as it contributes to the improvement of the results.
Microfluidics is a collaborative study that deals with the behaviour, efficient control, and modulation of fluids that are spatially confined to a very tiny scale on a microfluidic chip with a network of moulded or etched microchannels. It has a wide range of applications. Sperms move through microscopic mucosa microchannels from the cervix to the uterus on their journey to the egg, which works as a biofilter to pick functioning sperm. Microfluidics technology can imitate the female reproductive tract's natural microenvironment. Microfluidics in IVF aids in the screening of "best-in-class" sperm for ICSI.
Male factor infertility is now commonly treated using a technique known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). It entails inserting a single sperm cell into an egg intravenously. Embryologists, on the other hand, look for the highest-quality sperm for this procedure.
Currently, embryologists choose sperm for in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/ICSI based on their appearance and movement. Although density gradient separation can identify viable sperm, it can also result in excessive DNA fragmentation, which can injure the sperm. The swim-up method distinguishes "excellent swimmers" from the rest of the pack. These and other strategies, however, are not the most efficient ways to select high-quality sperm when sperm counts are low or sperm motility is diminished. Furthermore, with present procedures, outcomes may differ from embryologist to embryologist.
But on the other hand, Microfluidics in IVF is a new technology that is being used in a variety of biological applications to miniaturise and specify laboratory processes. Technology is utilised in conjunction with IVF to improve the outcome by making each step of the process easier. Gametes, culturing embryos, cryopreservation, and a variety of other applications can all benefit from microfluidics. Hence, it is considered more effective, safer and a smarter procedure than others.